Carbohydrate, Types and Its Classification

Biomolecules
       Bio molecules are the substances that runs life of living organism. They are important for the proper growth and development of the body, provide immunity, maintaince the body temperature, generate heat, catalyses several metabolic process, and also helps in cell division.
        Some important biomolecules are: protein, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, minerals, water etc.

Introduction of Carbohydrates

       The term carbohydrate often termed as the sugar as it is derived from the Greek word”ssakcharon” which are called as “the staff of life”.
       On the basis of mass carbohydrate are the most abudant class of biomolecules in nature.
       The term carbohydrate usually are known as hydrates of carbon.
       It was found that some of the carbohydrates such as deoxyribose, and other may contains Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Sulphur so clearlly it doesnot coincide the formula i.e. Cn(H2O)n.
       Definition: Carbohydrates are defined as aldehydes or ketones derivatives of higher polyhydric alcohols, or compounds which produce them on hydrolysis.


Biological function of Carbohydrates
  1. Source of Energy: Carbohydrate is the most important of energy. It is the chief dietary sources of energy for all organisms. (4.2k/cal)
  2. Structural components: it is the most important structural component. Monosaccharides are the structural component of nucleic acid, enzymes, rbc etc. Glycoprotein is the structural component of biological membrane. Cell wall of bacteria made up of polysaccharides.
  3. Regulation of fat metabolism: Carbohydrates are essential for normal oxidation of fat. when carbohydrate is low in diet, fat metabolizes rapidly. Thus accumulating incompletely oxidizes product leading to ketosis. This is common in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus.
  4. Protein sparing function: Carbohydrates being the measure source of energy it is consumed as a source of energy as long as it is available. Therefore carbohydrate spares the protein for the growth and development of the body.
  5.   Role of Gastro-intestinal functions: some of the carbohydrates are used in the process.
  6. Carbohydrates are the precursor for many organic component such as fats, amino acid.
  7. Act as a lubricating agents: Hyaluronic acid as a lubricating agen tin skin, cartilage, synovial fluid etc.
  8. These are also utilises as raw material in several industries like cellulose in paper industries.
  9. It is also the structural components of many organisms.
  10.  Certain carbohydrates are used as drugs like cardiac glycosides/antibiotics
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Classification of carbohydrates
                

       There are major three classes of carbohydrates. They are:
  1. Monosaccharides
  2. Oligosaccharides
  3. Polysaccharides
       Monosaccharides (mono=one and sakcharon=sugar)
                           

The carbohydrate which contain only one kind of sugar is called monosaccharide.
It cannot be hydrolyzed into simpler form, hence they are also known as simple sugar.
The general formula of Monosaccharides is Cn(H2O)n
                                      Triose having n=3
                                       Tetrose where n=4
                                        Pentose where n=5
The examples of it is Glucose, fructose, Ribose etc


       Oligosaccharide ( oligo=few)
Those carbohydrate that give two to ten molecule of same or different monosaccharide on hydrolysis.
For e.g.  Maltose= Glucose+Glucose
              Lactose= Glucose+Glactose
Depending upon the basis of giving number of Monosaccharides units by Oligosaccharides on hydrolysis they may be:
v  Disaccharide: give two molecule of Monosaccharides
                                                      e.g. Maltose, Lactose, sucrose
v  Trisaccharide: give three molecule of that
                                                      e.g. Rabinose
v  Tetrasaccharide: give four monosaccharide
                                                      e.g. Erythrose
v  Pentasaccharise: give 5 monosaccharide
                                              e.g. Xylose
       Polysaccharides:
            
                                
Those saccharides which can give more than 20 or 30 monosaccharide unit on hydrolysis called polysaccharides.
It may be further classify depending upon the nature of monosaccharide unit form, they are homopolysaccharide and heterosaccharides.
  1. Homopolysaccharide: those polysaccharide which give same type of monosaccharide unit on hydrolysis are known as polysaccharides. For e.g. starch
  2. Heterosaccharide: those polysaccharides which can be give different type of monosaccharide unit on hydrolysis is known as heteropolysacchrides. For e.g. Hyaluronic acid


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